Етнокультурні конотації в топонімії України

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Лучик, Василь
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У складі топонімів України значну частину становлять давні назви, які за час свого функціонування, крім обов’язкового номінативного значення, часто набували і продовжують набувати додаткових конотацій, зокрема етнокультурних. Такі конотації характерні як для питомих, так і для іншомовних географічних назв, які, крім спільних, відбивають і специфічні для різних народів та етносів риси матеріальної та духовної культури.
Toponyms, as well as common names, can develop connotative meanings under the influence of beliefs of different ethnic groups, which intermingle with the nominative function of respective toponyms. This can be exemplified with 11 analyzed geographical names. Toponym Bába was derived from the Indo-European appellative bába that developed different cultural and geographical meanings. Name Bákota could have been formed in Slavic-Illyrian or Slavic-Celtic language environment due to relation to the cultic animal, bull; compare Croatian surnames Bakota, Bakotić that are linked to Serbian bak “bull, ox”, Rusyn Bakoty, etc. Hydronym Béshka was formed as a result of compounding of stems bes, beš “five” and geographical term kajа “rock”. Numeral bes has sacred semantics in the Muslim tradition meaning “figurative plurality”; compare Ukrainian oikonyms Pyatykhátky that were formed under the influence of Turkic people. The functioning of the vast majority of toponyms with the stem Vedmézh- in Eastern Ukraine can be explained by the Slavs’ deep genetic memory of their totem animal; compare vedmézhyi kut “remote, solitary place”. Hydronym Vovk retained its archaic semantics “someone who is tearing apart,” “something that is torn apart from the main part; side branch.” The influence of the name of a carnivorous animal vovk on the river nomination is highly probable, which was typical for pagan onyms. Hydronym Zhabýne О́ ko is related to old beliefs and figurative word perception when lakes and other ponds were perceived as “the Earth’s eyes.” Oronym Lýsa horá contains an attribute that names an area without vegetation, where pagan sanctuaries were formerly situated, and during the period of Christianity those were the pagan places where witches and other evil spirits gathered. Steppe hydronym Molóchna may be an Eastern Slavic calque of an older Turkic or Indo-Iranian name Suten“ whose stem belongs to the opposition moloko “clean” and krov “unclean” in the corresponding folklore. Oronym Pip-Iván is apparently derived from the stem of Eastern Romance appellative popină “summit” that could have been transformed in the Ukrainian-speaking ethnic environment into the structurally similar name Pip-Іván, local Popіvan. Oronym Popadiá appeared as a result of onymization of the geographical term popadia “deep steepsided ravine,” whose formal coincidence with the appellative popadiá “priest’s wife” resulted in the development of a corresponding connotative meaning of the onym. Hydronym Svítiaz’ is explained as a German or Baltic loan word due to its relation to Old Icelandic Hvíting, the name of the lake and river derived from hvítr “white”, which also carries the connotative semantics of “light, clean, good.”
топоніми, етнокультурний, конотація, етимологія, географічні назви, toponyms, ethnocultural, connotation, geographical names
Лучик Василь Вікторович, Етнокультурні конотації в топонімії України / Лучик В. В. // Магістеріум. - 2016. - Вип. 62 : Мовознавчі студії. - С. 55-60.