Відшкодування шкоди в цивільному законодавстві: український та європейський підходи

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Ханик-Посполітак, Роксолана
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Статтю присвячено порівняльному аналізу законодавства України та уніфікованих європейських актів щодо відшкодування шкоди, зокрема обсягу відшкодування. Основну увагу приділено відшкодуванню збитків та їх складових, які є майновою шкодою.
The article covers a comparative analysis of the Ukrainian legislation and corresponding European acts on damage. Lately, the problem of compensation of damages has got especially acute. This is caused by such problems as the financial crisis, the war in the East of the country and the annexation of the Crimea. Therefore, compensation of damages, in particular the investors’ damages, has become very urgent for both domestic and international relations. Thus, the article discusses definitions of damages, losses, and indemnity. It is emphasized in the article that the Civil Code of Ukraine does not contain definitions of damages and losses. Moreover, the comparative analysis of the appropriate provisions shows that losses and damages are interpreted similarly. However, the scope of the ‘damages’ concept is wider than that of the ‘losses’. Furthermore, it is observed that the Civil Codes of Ukraine of 1922 and 1963 also contained these concepts. It could be inferred that historically the overall principle of the indemnity has not changed in the Ukrainian legislation. Recently, Ukrainian legislation entrenched the norm of full indemnity. European concepts of losses and indemnity reflected on UNIDROIT Principles 2010, the Principles of European Contract Law, Draft Common Frame of Reference, and other acts are studied. Those acts do not contain a generalized definition of indemnity either. A comparative analysis shows that both Ukrainian and European legislation entrench the principle of full indemnity. Regardless of different wording, either actual damages or loss of expected gain shall be compensated. Thus, there are no substantial differences in the Ukrainian and European concepts of the right on damage. However, Ukrainian lawyers should clearly differentiate between the concepts of losses and damages.
шкода, збитки, втрати, упущена вигода, майбутні збитки, моральна шкода, повна компенсація, damages, non-pecuniary damage, losses, harm, loss of expected gain, future losses, indemnity
Ханик-Посполітак Роксолана Юріївна. Відшкодування шкоди в цивільному законодавстві : український та європейський підходи / Ханик-Посполітак Р. Ю. // Наукові записки НаУКМА : Юридичні науки. - 2016. - Т. 181. - С. 103-106.